magnetic properties of materials wikipedia

Magnetic immunoassay (MIA) is a novel type of diagnostic immunoassay using magnetic beads as labels in lieu of conventional enzymes , radioisotopes or fluorescent moieties (fluorescent immunoassays).

Magnetic nanoparticles show a variety of unusual magnetic behaviour when compared to the bulk materials, mostly due to surface or interface effects, …

µ r = 1 for air or vacuum. Diamagnetism was first discovered when Anton Brugmans observed in 1778 that bismuth was repelled by magnetic fields. This means that the individual magnetic moments of the atoms are aligned with one another and they point in the same direction. In 1845, Michael Faraday demonstrated that it was a property of matter and concluded that every material responded (in either a diamagnetic or paramagnetic way) to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic permeability is typically represented by the (italicized) Greek letter μ. Permeability of material is also defined as, μ = μ 0 μ r Where, µ 0 is the permeability of air or vacuum, and μ 0 = 4π × 10-7 Henry/meter and µ r is the relative permeability of material. A magnetic domain is a region within a magnetic material in which the magnetization is in a uniform direction. Magnetic nanoparticles are those which can be affected using magnetic field. Ferrimagnetic materials have high resistivity and have anisotropic properties. A material selected for magnetic core in electrical machines should have high permeability, so that required magnetic flux can be produced in core by less ampere- turns. Magnetic materials are always made of metal, but not all metals are magnetic. Let us today discuss the magnetic properties of nanomaterials or nanoparticles. When this applied field aligns with the magnetic dipoles, it causes a net magnetic dipole moment and causes the magnetic dipoles to precess at a frequency controlled by the applied field, called Larmor or precession frequency. This assay involves the specific binding of an antibody to its antigen, where a magnetic label is conjugated to one element of the pair. These particles usually contain magnetic elements like iron, nickel, cobalt etc. The anisotropy is actually induced by an external applied field.
Magnetic metals. Properties. Iron is magnetic, so any metal with iron in it will be attracted to a magnet. In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the resistance of a material against the formation of a magnetic field, otherwise known as distributed inductance in transmission line theory.Hence, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields and form induced magnetic fields in the direction opposite to that of the applied magnetic field.

The article Ferromagnetic material properties is intended to contain a glossary of terms used to describe (mainly quantitatively) ferromagnetic materials, and magnetic cores.

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