Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313. found: Wikipedia, Nov. 10, 2014 (Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso X, Alphonse X, or Alfons X; born 23 November 1221 in Toledo; died 4 April 1284 in Seville; called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. He created the Mesta, an association of sheep farmers in the central plain, but debased the coinage to finance his claim to the German crown. Buy the Hardcover Book Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts by M G. 1775-1818 Lewis at Indigo.ca, Canada's largest bookstore. Alfonso XI ordered the assassination of his uncle Juan the One-eyed in Toro in the 1326 eve of the feast of All Saints, along with two of the latter's knights, luring the former with promises of reconciliation..  Out of respect, Yusuf ordered his army and his commanders in the border regions not to attack the Castilian procession as it traveled with the King's body to Seville.. HRE Ferdinand I's 7-Great Grandfather. He surrounded himself with mostly Jewish translators who rendered Arabic scientific texts into Castilian at Toledo. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. After the death of the infantes John and Peter in 1319, Philip (son of Sancho IV and María de Molina, thus brother of Infante Peter), Juan Manuel (the king's second-degree uncle by virtue of being Ferdinand III's grandson) and Juan the One-eyed (his second degree uncle, son of John of Castile who died in 1319) split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency, even as it was being looted by Moors and the rebellious nobility. King of Leon from 1065, King of Castile and de facto King of Galicia from 1072, self-proclaimed Emperor of all Spain. The early period of Alfonso's reign saw the translation of selected works of magic (Lapidario, Picatrix, Libro de las formas et las ymagenes) all translated by a Jewish scholar named Yehuda ben Moshe (Yhuda Mosca, in the Old Spanish source texts). " Gingerich (1990) says that a form of this alleged quotation was mentioned (but rejected) as early as the 16th century by the historian Jerónimo de Zurita, and that Soriano Viguera (1926) states that "nothing of the sort can be found in Alfonso's writings.  " Nevertheless, Dean Acheson (U.S. Secretary of State, 1949–1953) used it as the basis for the title and epigraph of his memoir Present at the Creation.. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He conducted several military actions, borrowing heavily from London merchants, to solidify his title, without success. Once that conflict was resolved, he redirected all his Reconquista efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 53:3, 1990. pp. Under his reign there was a considerable increase of Regal powers and legal strengthening of the figure of the King against the nobility. His fame extends to the preparation of the Alfonsine tables, based on calculations of al-Zarqali, "Arzachel". The primary intellectual work of these scholars centered on astronomy and astrology. In 1261 he captured Jerez. Alfonso I, byname Alfonso The Battler, Spanish Alfonso El Batallador, (born c. 1073—died September 1134), king of Aragon and of Navarre from 1104 to 1134. Also known as Alfonso el Sabio or Alfonso the Wise, Alfonso was a scholar with diverse interests, unusual among medieval monarchs; he wrote and collected music and sponsored legal reform (his portrait medallion is in the U.S. House of Representatives gallery of great lawmakers). Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 – 26 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. To obtain money, Alfonso debased the coinage and then endeavored to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff. Their final output promoted Castilian as a learning language both in science and literature, and established the foundations of the new Spanish language. Alfonso X fostered the development of a cosmopolitan court that encouraged learning. One of the miracles Alfonso relates is his own healing in Puerto de Santa María.. , As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. During his reign a political reform in the municipal government took place, with the substitution of the concejos abiertos by the regimientos. In 1240, he married Mayor Guillén de Guzmán, but the marriage was later annulled and their issue declared illegitimate. In 1231 Alfonso traveled with Pérez de Castron on a military campaign in lower Andalusia. This evolved version of the Castilian language also acquired significant relevance in the royal chancery, where it came to replace Latin, which until then had been the language commonly used for royal diplomacy in Castile and León.. In the same period (1240–1250) he conquered several Muslim strongholds in Al-Andalus alongside his father, such as Murcia, Alicante and Cadiz. His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him in 1272. Alfonso never even traveled to Germany, and his alliance with the Italian Ghibelline Lord Ezzelino IV da Romano deprived him of the initial support of Pope Alexander IV. , Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. In the end, after Richard's death, the German princes elected Rudolph I of Habsburg (1273), Alfonso being declared deposed by Pope Gregory X. Writing in Estoria de España, Alfonso describes having seen St. James on a white horse with a white banner and a legion of knights fighting a war above the soldiers of Spain. Alfonso's court compiled in Castilian a work titled General Estoria. His father died when Alfonso was one year old. The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority; the third by his victory in the Battle of Río Salado over the last formidable Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1340. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. Free shipping and pickup in store on eligible orders. His rival, Richard of Cornwall, went to Germany and was crowned in 1257 at Aachen. Before Alfonso came of age his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs. King Afonso III of Portugal had to surrender, but he gained an agreement by which, after he consented to marry Alfonso X's daughter Beatrice of Castile, the land would be returned to their heirs. In 1077, he … The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary. English: Alfonso VI (c. 1040 – 1041 – 1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III. Because of this work, the lunar crater Alphonsus is named after him. According to some scholars Alfonso lacked the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles although this is not a view taken by all. Alfonso VI of Castile (1040-1110) was the king of Leon from 1065 to 1110, succeeding Fernando I of Leon and preceding Urraca of Leon, and the king of Castile from 1072 until his death in 1110, succeeding Sancho II of Castile and preceding Urraca. , "...King Alfonso was not very tall but well proportioned, and he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair. King Alfonso VIII, King of Castile King Alfonso VIII of Castile was born November 11th, 1155, became king of Castile at the tender age of 3 in 1158, and died on October 5th, 1214. Before Alfonso came of age, his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs.  This vision of a heavenly army fighting in Jerez and participation in military campaigns likely left Alfonso X with a high degree of knowledge and respect for military operations and chivalric knights. Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso X, Alphonse X, or Alfons X, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. This chronicle sought to establish a general history and drew from older chronicles, folklore and Arabic sources. Violante was ten years old at the time of her marriage to Alfonso; she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – June 29/July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant. One side effect of the quickly expanding sheep herds was the decimation to the Castilian farmland through which the sheep grazed.. Pedro Alfonso (1330-1338), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Sancho Alfonso (1331-1343), 1st Lord of Ledesma Henry II of Castile (1333-1379) King of Castile (1369-1379); Fadrique Alfonso (1333-1358), Henry's twin brother, he was Master of the Order of Santiago and Lord of Haro; Fernando Alfonso (1336-c. 1350), 2nd Lord of Ledesma; Tello Alfonso (1337-1370), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Juan Alfonso … As an intellectual he gained considerable scientific fame based on his encouragement of astronomy, which included astrology at the time and the Ptolemaic cosmology as known to him through the Arabs. At the same time, he had a romantic relationship with Mayor Guillén de Guzmán, who bore him a daughter, Beatrice.  They had: By his mistress, Eleanor of Guzmán, he had ten children: After Alfonso's death, his widow Maria had Eleanor arrested and later killed.  Following a ritual that took him to Santiago de Compostela and to the monastery of Las Huelgas in Burgos, his self-crowning took place in 1332. Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, Spanish: el Sabio; 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. Alfonso's second son, Sancho, claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. Alfonso VIII, byname El de Las Navas (Spanish: He of Las Navas), (born 1155—died Oct. 6, 1214, Burgos, Castile), king of Castile from 1158, son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when three years old. He began his career as a soldier, under the command of his father, when he was only sixteen years old. Urraca Alfonso de Castillla (1132 - 26 October 1164) married (1) on 24 June 1144 in León García VI Ramírez “el Restaurador”, king of Navarre; married (2) Álvaro Rodríguez de Castro. " These efforts to make a codified standard of chivalric conduct were likely meant to both encourage strength of arms (prowess) and to restrain the use of violence for only just (state-sponsored) usage. A reaction in his favor was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville in 1284, leaving a will, by which he endeavored to exclude Sancho, and a heritage of civil war. BIOGRAPHY: Alfonso VIII was also known as El De Las Navas (He of Las Navas).  The Castilian forces withdrew from Gibraltar, with some of the defenders coming out to watch. The end of his reign was marred by a civil war with his eldest surviving son, the future Sancho IV, which continued after his death. A bitter civil war broke out resulting in Alfonso's being forced in 1282 to accept Sancho as his heir instead of his young grandsons; only the cities of Seville, Murcia and Badajoz remained faithful to him. HM George I's 12-Great Grandfather. He managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. From a young age Alfonso X showed an interest in military life and chivalry. Free shipping and pickup in store on eligible orders.  His mother was the paternal cousin of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, to whom Alfonso is often compared. Jews, Muslims, and Christians had prominent roles in his court. House of Trastámara Edit Henry II was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI. Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 – 26 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. From the beginning of his reign, Alfonso employed Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars at his court, primarily for the purpose of translating books from Arabic and Hebrew into Latin and Castilian, although he always insisted in supervising personally the translations. He was persuaded by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile to marry the latter’s heiress, Urraca, widow of … Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, Spanish: el Sabio; 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. Alfonso VII (March 1, 1105 – August 21, 1157), called the Emperor, he became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of Castile and León in 1126. These were all highly ornate manuscripts (only the Lapidario survives in its entirety) containing what was believed to be secret knowledge on the magical properties of stones and talismans. One famous, but apocryphal, quote attributed to him upon his hearing an explanation of the extremely complicated mathematics required to demonstrate Ptolemy's theory of astronomy was "If the Lord Almighty had consulted me before embarking on creation thus, I should have recommended something simpler. Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando; 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231. Alfonso X is credited with the first depiction of an hórreo, a typical granary from the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. He was the king of Castile from 1158 and the son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when he was three years old. He is variously known among Castilian kings as the Avenger or the Implacable, and as "He of Río Salado." Alfonso X, king of Castile, was born Nov. 23, 1221, in Toledo, Spain. Alfonso had many works previously written in Arabic and Latin translated into vernacular Castilian in his court. He fought a successful war with Portugal, but a less successful one with Granada. Alfonso succeeded his father as King of Castile and León in 1252. Born on 13 August 1311 in Salamanca, he was the son of King Ferdinand IV of Castile and Constance of Portugal. "Libro de los Juegos" (The Book of Games), Lewis E 245 Fuero real (Royal municipal code) at OPenn, International Music Score Library Project, Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Authors honoured on Galician Literature Day, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfonso_X_of_Castile&oldid=996513298, 13th-century people of the Holy Roman Empire, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2019, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Berenguela Alfonso of Castile, who married after 1264 with, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 01:37. Alfonso X (King) of CASTILE (& Leon) `el Sabio' (`the Wise'); FERNANDEZ; (Holy Roman EMPEROR; eponym of the Alfonsine Tables of trigonometry) Born: Toledo 1221 Died: 1284 Seville. , In 1273, he created the Mesta, an association of some 3,000 petty and great sheep holders in Castile, in reaction to less wool being exported from the traditional sites in England. Alfonso VI, byname Alfonso the Brave, Spanish Alfonso el Bravo, (born before June 1040—died 1109, Toledo, Castile), king of Leon (1065–70) and king of reunited Castile and Leon (1072–1109), who by 1077 had proclaimed himself “emperor of all Spain ” (imperator totius Hispaniae). Family. With Mayor Guillén de Guzmán, daughter of Guillén Pérez de Guzmán and of María González Girón, he fathered: With Elvira Rodríguez de Villada, daughter of Rodrigo Fernández de Villada, he fathered: With María Alfonso de León, his aunt, the illegitimate daughter of the King Alfonso IX of León and Teresa Gil de Soverosa he had: harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFO'Callaghan1993 (. 1350), 2nd Lord of, This page was last edited on 31 January 2021, at 06:04. They consist of 420 poems with musical notation. Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts (Classic Reprint): Lewis, M G: 9780331771817: Books - Amazon.ca In 1275 Alfonso tried to meet with his imperial vicar in Italy, William VII of Montferrat (who had succeeded Ezzelino) and his Ghibelline allies in Piedmont and Lombardy to celebrate the victory against the Guelph Charles I of Anjou and be crowned in Lombardy; he was however halted in his imperial ambitions in Provence by the Pope who, after a long negotiation, obtained Alfonso's oral renunciation of any claims to the Holy Roman Empire. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. The very first translation, commissioned by his brother, Fernando de la Cerda—who had extensive experience, both diplomatic and military, among the Muslims of southern Iberia and north Africa—was a Castilian version of the animal fable Kalila wa-Dimna, a book that belongs to the genre of wisdom literature labeled Mirrors for Princes: stories and sayings meant to instruct the monarch in proper and effective governance. During the election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be king of Germany on 1 April. Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin. Spanish Chivalric conduct was codified in the Siete Partidas (2,21) where he wrote that knights should be, "of good linage and distinguished by gentility, wisdom, understanding, loyalty, courage, moderation, justice, prowess, and the practical knowledge necessary to assess the quality of horse and arms (Siete Partidas, 21,1–10). Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods. John of Gaunt claimed the title of King of Castile and Léon by virtue of his marriage to Constance, daughter of Peter of Castile. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. Alfonso was the son of Sancho V Ramírez. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. Son and nobles alike supported the Moors when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with Abu Yusuf Yakub, the ruling Marinid Sultan of Morocco, they denounced him as an enemy of the faith. The first of these was, ironically, translated from Latin (it was used among the Visigoths), into Arabic, and then back into Castilian and Latin.  This world history was left incomplete, however, and so it stops at the birth of Christ. As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide the kingdoms expanded under his father with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. In 1254 Alfonso X signed a treaty of alliance with King Henry III of England, supporting him in the war against King Louis IX of France. This work was an attempt at a world history that drew from many sources and included translations from the Vulgate Old Testament mixed with myths and histories from the classical world, mostly Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In 1256, at the death of William II of Holland, Alfonso's descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of Philip of Swabia, gave him a claim through the Hohenstaufen line. Chapman, Charles Edward and Rafael Altamira, From 'Crónica de Pedro' by Pedro López de Ayala (1332–1407), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Collegiate Church of Saint Hippolytus, John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, Alfonso Téllez de Meneses, 4th Lord of Meneses, "La práctica de las autocoronaciones reales. References. After the accession of King Theobald I of Navarre, Ferdinand tried to arrange a marriage for Alfonso with Theobald's daughter, Blanche, but the move was unsuccessful. For the first nine years of his life Alfonso was only heir to Castile until his paternal grandfather king Alfonso IX of León died and his father united the kingdoms of Castile and León.  Most of the texts first translated at this time survive in only one manuscript each. Throughout his reign, Alfonso contended with the nobles, particularly the families of Nuño González de Lara, Diego López de Haro and Esteban Fernández de Castro, all of whom were formidable soldiers and instrumental in maintaining Castile's military strength in frontier territories. He became king of León (1065–72) and of Galicia (1071 – 1109), and then king of the reunited Castile and León (1072 – 1109). Reconciliation was bought by Alfonso's son Ferdinand in 1273. His grandmother, María de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, son of King Alfonso X of Castile and uncle Infante Peter of Castile, Lord of Cameros, son of King Sancho IV assumed the regency. Alfonso VIII Ivrea of Castile was born 11 November 1155 to Sancho III, King of Castile (1134-1158) and Blanca Garcés of Navarre (aft1133-1156) and died 5 October 1214 of unspecified causes. Fernando Alfonso (1336–c. Alfonso XI, king of Castile and Leon, 1311-1350--Drama. Alfonso X, byname Alfonso the Wise, or the Learned, Spanish Alfonso el Sabio, (born November 23, 1221, Burgos, Castile [Spain]—died April 4, 1284, Sevilla), king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. His effective reign began in August 1325 when he was sworn in as King as he was proclaimed to have reached the age of majority in the Cortes of Valladolid. The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended. In addition to these books of astral magic, Alfonso ordered the translation of well-known Arabic astrological compendia, including the Libro de las cruzes and Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas. King Alfonso X developed a court culture that encouraged cosmopolitan learning. He renounced his claim to Germany in 1275, and in creating an alliance with the Kingdom of England in 1254, his claim on the Duchy of Gascony as well. Alfonso's respect for chivalry can also be seen in his writing of Spanish law. Alfonso was born in Zamora.He was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313. Alfonso also had the Libro de ajedrez, dados, y tablas ("Libro de los Juegos" (The Book of Games)) translated into Castilian from Arabic and added illustrations with the goal of perfecting the work. Alfonso's scientific interests—he is sometimes nicknamed the Astrologer (el Astrólogo)—led him to sponsor the creation of the Alfonsine tables, and the Alphonsus crater on the moon is named after him. Infected by the Black Death during the 1349–1350 siege of Gibraltar, Alfonso died in the night of 25–26 March 1350 (some sources put the date wrongfully at 27 March). Alfonso was a prolific author of Galician poetry, such as the Cantigas de Santa Maria, which are equally notable for their musical notation as for their literary merit. Alfonso's election as German king by the prince-electors misled him into complicated schemes that involved excessive expense but never succeeded. He began medieval Europe's most comprehensive code of law, the Siete Partidas, which, however, thwarted by the nobility of Castile, was only promulgated by his great-grandson. Alexander Bogdanov maintained that these tables formed the basis for Copernicus's development of a heliocentric understanding in astronomy. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brother's death. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. Un rey en tierra de frontera (1312-1350)", "Notas para el itinerario de Alfonso XI en el periodo de 1344 a 1350", "Towards a Symbolic History of Alfonso XI of Castile: Power, Ceremony and Triumph", "Evolución del Concejo de Murcia en la Edad Media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfonso_XI_of_Castile&oldid=1003895811, 14th-century deaths from plague (disease), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2016, Articles needing translation from Spanish Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  It was completed in 1283. Alfonso XI was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo. Barton, Simon.  The main significance of this work lies in the translations from Latin into Castilian. He also sponsored the work of historians, who for the first time placed Spain—he would have called it that—in the context of world history. In the same year Alfonso's half-sister, Eleanor, married Henry's son Edward: with this act Alfonso renounced forever all claim to the Duchy of Gascony, to which Castile had been a pretender since the marriage of Alfonso VIII of Castile with Eleanor of England. Born in Toledo, Kingdom of Castile, Alfonso was the eldest son of Ferdinand III and Elizabeth (Beatrice) of Swabia. This translation of Arabic and Classic documents into vernacular encouraged the development of Spanish sciences, literature, and philosophy. Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have eleven children: Alfonso X also had several illegitimate children. In 1249, Alfonso married Violant, the daughter of King James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary, although betrothed already in 1246. 'S election as German king by the prince-electors misled him into complicated schemes that involved expense! Manuel in 1325, but a less successful one with Granada depiction three! Treaty of Badajoz ( 1267 ) and Urraca of Portugal of, this page was last on. Provided in the Battle of Río Salado over Granadans and Marinids and the intervention the... 1328, was to separate the fields from the sheep-ways linking grazing areas [! Drew from older chronicles, the Crónica general, completed in 1264 2nd Lord,. Reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the defenders coming out to.! Alfonso relates is his own healing in Puerto de Santa Maria ( song CLXXXVII ) from A.C! 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